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The Application of Rare Earth

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Rare earth materials with special chemical and physical properties, so it has a wide range of applications in material, chemical, and nuclear energy, such as its main function is to improve the material performance and activity, it's main application:

1.Metallurgy: de-oxygen de-sulfur, and other injurious ingredients to act reducing agent.

2.Flint, ignition device

3.catalyst for petroleum cracking process

4.Purifying automobile exhaust gas

5.Glass precipitating and decoloring agents

6.Permanent magnets SmCo,NdFeB

7.Super-conductor

8.Functional ceramic, yttria+zirconia

9.Phosphor for color TV, ceria+zirconia

10.Hydrogen storage, secondary battery

11.Polishing powder

12.Laser material, optical fiber optical lens

13.Magnetic memory materials

14.Substitution of poisonous Cd pigments

15.Environmental protection:plastics degradation,paint and ink drier

16.Laser materials

17.Agriculture

A table listing the seventeen rare earth elements, their atomic number and symbol, and their main usages (see also Technological applications) is provided here. Some of the rare earths are named after the scientists who discovered or elucidated their elemental properties, and some after their geographical discovery.

SymbolNameSelected applications
21ScScandiumLight aluminium-scandium alloy for aerospace components, additive in Mercury-vapor lamps.[4]
39YYttriumYttrium-aluminium garnet (YAG) laser, yttrium vanadate (YVO4) as host for europium in TV red phosphor, YBCO high-temperature superconductors, yttrium iron garnet (YIG) microwavefilters.[4]
57LaLanthanumHigh refractive index glass, flint, hydrogen storage, battery-electrodes, camera lenses, fluid catalytic cracking catalyst for oil refineries
58CeCeriumChemical oxidizing agent, polishing powder, yellow colors in glass and ceramics, catalyst forself-cleaning ovens, fluid catalytic cracking catalyst for oil refineries, ferrocerium flints for lighters
59PrPraseodymiumRare-earth magnets, lasers, core material for carbon arc lighting, colorant in glasses andenamels, additive in didymium glass used in welding goggles,[4] ferrocerium firesteel (flint) products.
60NdNeodymiumRare-earth magnets, lasers, violet colors in glass and ceramics, ceramic capacitors
61PmPromethiumNuclear batteries
62SmSamariumRare-earth magnets, lasers, neutron capture, masers
63EuEuropiumRed and blue phosphors, lasers, mercury-vapor lamps, NMR relaxation agent
64GdGadoliniumRare-earth magnets, high refractive index glass or garnets, lasers, X-ray tubes, computer memories, neutron capture, MRI contrast agent, NMR relaxation agent
65TbTerbiumGreen phosphors, lasers, fluorescent lamps
66DyDysprosiumRare-earth magnets, lasers
67HoHolmiumLasers
68ErErbiumLasers, vanadium steel
69TmThuliumPortable X-ray machines
70YbYtterbiumInfrared lasers, chemical reducing agent
71LuLutetiumPET Scan detectors, high refractive index glass

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